What is the difference between a lumped element and distributed circuit model?

Lumped Element Model

  • Concept: Assumes properties (resistance, capacitance, inductance) are concentrated in discrete components.
  • Use: Suitable for low-frequency circuits where the component size is much smaller than the signal wavelength.
  • Characteristics: Easier to analyze with basic circuit laws, no phase difference or propagation delay considered.
  • Examples: Simple RC or RLC circuits, basic amplifiers.

Distributed Circuit Model

  • Concept: Properties are spread out along the length of components or transmission lines.
  • Use: Suitable for high-frequency circuits where the signal wavelength is comparable to component size.
  • Characteristics: Requires transmission line theory, considers phase differences and propagation delays.
  • Examples: Microwave circuits, antennas, transmission lines.